These runes were added into Diablo I through the Hellfire expansion set. They were single use items, similar to a scroll, but were placed on the ground like a trap.
“Effect: Casts a fireball/Creates a one-square fire flame. Requirement: None. Quality level: 1...Rune of Fire
“Effect: Casts Lightning Wall Requirement: 13 Magic Quality level: 3 Cost: 200 goldRune of Lightning